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by José Antonio Valles Romero. Ph.D., Research Professor, University Autonoma of Edo. of Mexico

Reverse Logistics Magazine, Edition 56

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The implementation of public policies in the case of Ciudad Jardín Bicentenario arises in the context of the municipality scope; this project was carried out with the participation of the two levels of government: State and Municipality; as well as with the collaboration of the private sector for the achievement of a common objective, the reuse of space in landfills for waste disposal that are open, highly contaminating, hazardous and noxious, for more than one and a half million inhabitants of the municipality of Nezahualcóyotl, as a trigger to the economy in the eastern area of the State of Mexico. The environment and the complexity of the joint action that involves different political and social were analyzed. The methodology used is a qualitative type, so it does not employ quantitative instruments for measuring economic variables; instead it is of vital importance the information of the key stakeholders in this project. The intended scope is the analysis, and the parts of the phenomenon are disaggregated for the study of their characteristics.

In the present work issues are addressed that relate to the transformation of the dump over 100 hectares, located in the area known as Bordo of Xochiaca, Municipality of Netzahualcoyotl, State of Mexico, which was transformed into a complex commercial and sports center, through the implementation of the Ciudad Jardín Bicentenario project.

The problem is that beyond good intentions, having an appropriate legal framework, sufficient funding and the express agreement of the representatives of the agencies involved, the Ciudad Jardín Bicentenario project implementation put in perspective the problems for its completion; Since the original users saw from the beginning the end to their way of life, other words, around the same geographical space converged different interests, represented by people with different visions of the world; therefore the problem concerning this current research can be expressed by the following questions:

• What are the problems of implementation that were generated in the completion of the Ciudad Jardín Bicentenario project?
• How was the complexity of the joint action addressed, expressed by the presence of various people, with different interests in the same geographical space?

The overall objective of this work was mainly based on:

• Characterize the relationships between the different people involved in the Ciudad Jardín Bicentenario project.
• Analyze the conjunction of interests of those involved in the project.
• Identify a set of individual and organizational activities that occur through the implementation process and have come to transform the attitudes within the framework of a context established by the political and social people involved.

Ciudad Jardín Bicentenario Project
In our country, the governments at the municipal level have distinguished themselves by directing their greatest activity on the provision of public services. The major economic activity; as well as the political plurality and the alternation of Federal, State and Municipal governments that the country is living in has demanded in recent decades a broad autonomy at the local level.

The garbage dump “Neza 1” is located in a total area of 110 hectares, featuring 64 hectares of expansion, and adjacent, a sports center of 46 hectares, over 40 years old, receiving a volume of trash generated by rubble and waste of 12,050,000 cubic meters (twelve million fifty thousand cubic meters), with an approximate weight of 9,600,000 tons of trash, with a height of 13 meters above ground level.

The methodology used in the present investigation does not employ quantitative instruments for measuring variables; instead the input of the key people in this project is of vital importance. The intended scope was to analyze parts of the phenomenon that were disaggregated to study their characteristics. The framework of the analysis is provided by the discipline of the public policies, specifically those of implementation.

The participation of the different people in the Ciudad Jardín Bicentenario project (P (cjb)) was bounded, while it is true that a larger number of people presented themselves as a set in table 1 where their relationship with the program, the perspective, and the objectives is shown, as well as the degree of importance which is involved inside of the process of the implementation of this policy.

Complexity of the joint action in the implementation of the Ciudad Jardín Bicentenario project
The complexity of the joint action as a model arose at the beginning of the implementation of the P (cjb) envisioned a not-so-simple start since it became complex when some people such as the pickers of the garbage dump, members of the sports leagues and stall vendors of installed cars in the Bordo of Xochiaca had different perspectives and interests to the employers who were the entrepreneurs and City Hall through its different areas, showed a high sense of urgency for the implementation of the project, since they would get political, economic and social benefits in the short-term that could stop them if the financial resources and part of the legal permissions which they already had, however the perspective of those who opposed it was different, it would affect the economic well-being of the garbage pickers and on the other hand, the interests of the sports leagues and the stall vendors of cars would be economic and political.

First stage
It is important to note that in the Eastern area of the State of Mexico there are interesting projects have been presented in relation to the implementation of the same, as it was the case of the project for the construction of the airport of the City of Mexico in the municipality of Atenco in the State of Mexico in the year 2006, however, the implementation was not completed for political social, agricultural and legal reasons; among others; there was a lack of negotiation and agreement by the Government of then-President Vicente Fox Quezada and the commoners of municipality of Atenco, whose project rather than generating any political and economic benefit to the Federal Government and State Government respectively, concluded with a delegitimization and discontent that lasts to date.

Second stage
While it is true as it was presented in the first part of the third chapter of this research there were some problems, these problems or conflicts were modified by solving them in the different stages of development, there was the need to adjust actions through agreements, wills, and negotiations on a constant basis between employers who were administrators and implementers and those who took major decisions to carry out such actions, there arose in the areas where political and social stakeholders and participants competed to obtain gains from the exercise of its power.

According to the official municipal government (LIC.Martin Rosales) P (cjb) from the closure of an unhealthy place the possibility is created to be able to take advantage of the 110 hectares of land. It arises to contribute to a better development by a businessman, even though the idea was not clear from the start, little by little it changes to consolidate, “Continuity also ushered its adjuvant, the fact that Arturo Montiel has been replaced by Peña Nieto, who was the PRI representative in Congress and has also formed part of the Cabinet of Arturo Montiel as Secretary” That also gave it a certain facility.
This continuity of Montiel to Peña, and the continuity of Luis Sánchez Jiménez to Victor Bautista Lopez; as Victor Bautista” Member of the Advisory Council

Benefits of the implementation of the P (cjb) in the municipality of Nezahualcóyotl
There is no doubt that there are social, political, cultural, ecological and economic benefits, among others, for the majority of the population of the municipality of Nezahualcóyotl, and to the adjacent municipalities, as well as for some delegations of the Federal District, in the same way the political and social people that had a stake in the implementation of the P (cjb), so that the Eastern area was benefited by this project, whose history still does not end, we will see in the coming years what will be the balance for the evaluation of this project.

Definitely, part of the economic dynamics expand, as concentric waves of water, and many sectors that were not included in the benefits of the project Ciudad Jardín Bicentenario, analyzing the social components, highlight in first place the nearby residents, who stopped suffering from the old issues they had concerning the open dump, coupled with that now in the vicinity of their home they can go shopping, go to the cinema, eat out, or simply pass the time in front of the displays, without purchasing anything. There is even the possibility of getting employment, coupled with the commitment of those administrators of this mega project, who have pledged to provide training courses to the inhabitants of that region, they become a labor force that can occupy the jobs that are generated.

In the same way, other sectors benefited, such as young people, who now have a place to socialize, with greater security, and with the possibility of entering into friendly relationships or interpersonal relationships with other workers, i.e. find a space where they can interact, engage in shopping or recreation, watch a movie, or simply walk through the halls and look at displays. The earned benefits are great, generational, every day and with a permanent presence in the long term.

In the same way agreements are made with the organization of athletes in the maintenance and improvement of the sports fields found on the Bordo of Xochiaca Avenue, since not all have wanted to deal with the sports facilities. As for the stall vendors of cars, they were assigned a space in the sports complex, Telmex Bicentenario, as part of them already occupied part of that space, however there are emerging new groups of sellers of cars that are those who currently occupy the public spaces of the Bordo of Xochiaca Avenue.

The implementation of the P (cjb) as public policy, has several aspects, since it turned out successful for the State Government, at first for Governor Arturo Montiel (1995-2005) who at the time made a campaign promise and Enrique Peña Nieto (2005-2011), respectively, under the management of the latter is when the execution of the P (cjb) occurred, making the search for stronger and longer political positions a reality and the project showed the local population of Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl, which fulfilled one of the campaign promises, then for them . It was a success of public policy.

Another fundamental aspect was the financial resource for more than $150 million in by businessmen from the CARSO group, which allowed the development of this project, whose resources were limited and managed by entrepreneurs.

Finally the implementation allowed for cases of success or failure, for not having a social bond, the success of the implementation was due to the fact that it was performed under a negotiation process between those who took a political approach to its implementation, including those who had the desire and disposition to be practical , as well as all those people on whom depended the implementation of the adjustments at each stage of the project, allowing it to reach fruition, the action that they had to build or rebuild day by day, transforming all those jobs that were designed in the beginning on the desktop, without leaving aside the role of the businessmen who had a high capacity to influence politically and especially economically, whose interests would undoubtedly be higher.

Anaya, Lilián Los 10 municipios con más habitantes por kilómetro. México: El Universal, 29 -12-2010.

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José Antonio Valles Romero. Ph.D. in logistics and transportation, Masters in Engineering, Civil Engineer and Master in Sciences. Member of the National System of Researchers of CONACYT, Full-Time Research Professor at the University Autonoma of Edo. of Mexico in the academic division of Unidad Académica Profesional Nezahualcóyotl, a Bachelor of Engineering in Transportation, Author of books on multimodal logistics and transport and reverse logistics, National logistics award winner, awarded by the Ministry of communications and transport and the Ministry of Economy, Mexico, Tel (55) 51 12 63 72, ext. 7972, avallesdoc@gmail. Com
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